Established by Samuel Bowles II in 1824 as a rural weekly, the Springfield Republican was converted into a daily in 1844. The Republican is a newspaper in Springfield, Massachusetts. It is owned by Newhouse Newspapers, a division of Advance Publications. It played important roles in the United States Republican Party's founding, Charles Dow's career, and the invention of the pronoun "Ms." From the beginning; the paper had a focus on local news. As rapidly as possible its news-gathering was extended until within a few years its columns contained departments of items from every town and hamlet along the Connecticut Valley, as well as from Springfield. Bowles III believed that the newspaper should be a power in the moral, religious, and literary, as well as the political life of the community, and he tried to make his paper fulfill those functions. The Republican became part of two other local papers. The Springfield Daily News and the Morning Union merged in the 1970s. The newspaper was formerly known as The Springfield Union News & Sunday Republican. The newspaper reverted to its historical, pre-Union-News name of The Republican around 2001. George Arwady became publisher of The Springfield Republican on December 31, 2009.